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    生產加工:托輥設備、托輥機械制造
    首頁:公司動態 >> 目前托輥制造存在的主要問題及分析
    1 目前托輥制造存在的主要問題及分析 1 the current main problems of roller manufacture and analysis 帶式輸送機托輥是個簡單的小部件,正因為是小部件,歷來被忽視。托輥的結構設計較為簡單,如圖1 ,此結構是目前的規范結構,本文暫不探討設計結構問題,主要針對此結構分析研究加工工藝過程和托輥加工設備的加工方法,然后優化設計出托輥數控自動化生產線工藝優化方案,為托輥數控自動化生產線的設計提供工藝方案。 Belt conveyor roller is a simple widget, because be the widget, has always been neglected. Roller of the structure design is relatively simple, as shown in figure 1, this structure is the specification of the structure, temporarily not to discuss design problems, this paper focuses on the structure analysis of the machining process and processing method of roller processing equipment, and then optimize design of roller CNC automatic production line process optimization scheme, for the roller process scheme for the design of numerical control automatic production line. 圖1 托輥輥子 Figure 1 roller roller 1.1 托輥輥體 1.1 the roller roller body 如圖2,1-管子,2-軸承座,把軸承座放入管子兩端的止口內,然后在環式焊床上把軸承座和管子焊接在一起。 As shown in figure 2, 1 - pipe, 2 - bearing seat, put the bearing into the seam allowance at the ends of the pipe, and then the ring weld the bearing seat on the bed and tube welded together. 存在的工藝缺點是:1)軸承座和管子采用焊接工藝造成了軸承座熱變形,軸承座的內孔與管子的平行度受到了影響,也就是兩端的軸承座的同心度得不到保障,2)由于是手工安設軸承座,軸承座內孔與設備的頂頭公差較大(為了便于安設),軸承座的外徑與管子止口孔的公差也較大,實際制作的輥體,無法保證圖2中所標注的同心度。 Shortcomings of process are: 1) the bearing seat and pipe welding process caused by bearing thermal deformation, and the inner hole of the bearing with parallel pipe affected, namely the concentricity of the bearing at the ends of the protected, 2) because it is handmade make bearing seat, bearing inner hole and equipment of immediate larger tolerance (set) to facilitate, the outer diameter of the bearing and the tube through hole tolerance is bigger also, the actual production of the roller body, there is no guarantee that the concentricity of marked in figure 2. 圖2輥體 Figure 2 roller body 1.1.1 管子 1.1.1 pipe 目前托輥輥皮(也叫管子)加工的設備是上世紀80年代的產品,用于制造輥皮的鋼管,在徑向上公差較大并有橢圓度,在軸向上直度公差較大,加工出來的輥皮,基本無法保證徑向圓的跳動量。國家煤炭行業標準MT821-2006規定的徑向圓跳動量的最小值為0.7mm,采用現行的加工設備和鋼管加工的托輥輥皮,達標比率較低。 The idler roller skin (also called pipe) processing equipment is the product of the 1980 s, used in the manufacture of steel pipe roller skin, on the radial tolerance is larger and the ovality, tolerance is larger in the shaft straightened, roll leather processing, basic is no guarantee that the radial beat quantity of the circle. MT821-2006 national coal industry standard amount of radial round to beat the minimum value of 0.7 mm, with the current machining equipment and steel pipe roller roller skin, standard ratio is low. 具體問題有: Specific questions are: 1)管子鏜口時,管子2端止口間的距離,即圖3中尺寸937,誤差較大并數值分散,誤差值一般在3mm范圍。此誤差給托輥軸的加工帶來了不便。若托輥軸完全按圖紙要求加工,就會有30%以上的托輥輥體與軸,由于軸上軸用擋圈槽的距離相對小,而無法裝配。目前實際加工中,為了解決相互尺寸不配套的問題,大多數的廠家只好放大托輥軸上軸用擋圈槽的距離,一般放大值在3-5mm。放大后雖然解決了無法裝配的問題,但又帶來了30%以上的托輥軸向穿動量超標,影響了現場使用。之所以產生此類問題,是由于加工設備落后,采用無觸點限位開關設定進給行程。 1) the pipe boring, pipes, the distance between two side seam allowance, namely the size in figure 3, 937, and the numerical dispersion error, error value generally in the range of 3 mm. This error brought inconvenience to the supporting roller processing. If the roller completely according to the drawing requirements processing, there will be more than 30% of the idler roller and shaft, due to the shaft axis with the distance of the ring groove is relatively small, and can't assembly. In the actual processing, in order to solve the problem of size don't match each other, most of the manufacturers have to enlarge the distance with the retaining ring groove on the roller shaft as, general zoom value in 3 to 5 mm. Enlarged although have solved the problem of unable to assembly, but also brought momentum to exceed bid more than 30% of the roller to wear, impact on the field use. Is such a problem, is due to the processing equipment, using non-contact limit switch set feeding schedule. 2)管子鏜孔設備夾持管子的夾具沒有糾偏對準功能,采用V型鐵或圓錐內表面的方法來夾持或頂持輥皮并設定軸向中心,然后兩端鏜口或倒角,加工出安放軸承座的止口或引導口,加工出的管子外皮相對于管子2端止口的軸線,徑向跳動量較大。原因有三點,其一是管子端口與管子軸線的垂直度誤差,其二是管子端口的橢圓度及直徑誤差,其三是設備的設計缺陷及精度。 2) pipe boring equipment clamping pipe clamp without correction function, adopt the method of v-shaped iron or conical surface to clamping or a roller skin and set the axial center, and then on both ends of the boring or chamfering, work out put the seam allowance or guide mouth of bearing seat, work out the tube skin relative to the pipe axis of the 2 end, radial runout is high. The reason has three, one is the pipe port with the pipe axis perpendicularity error, error of the second stage is the ovality and the diameter of the pipe port, the third is the design defects and the accuracy of the equipment. 3)目前管子鏜孔設備技術落后,精度低,管子2端止口的加工精度不夠,同心度難以保證,圖紙的技術數據見圖2、圖3 。 3) the pipe boring equipment technical backwardness, low accuracy, pipe processing precision of the two side is not enough, hard to ensure concentricity, drawings, technical data as shown in figure 2, figure 3. 圖3 管子 Figure 3 pipe 加工手段遠離設計的要求,沒有按照圖紙要求進行嚴格的加工制造。圖2是托輥管子的設計圖。主要原因是目前的托輥加工專用設備是上個世紀80年代研發的,當時科技落后,研發力量薄弱,無法實現托輥軸的有效加工,也就保證不了圖紙的技術要求。 Processing means far away from the design requirements, there is no strict manufacture carried out in accordance with the drawings requirements. Figure 2 is the roller design of the pipe. The main reason is that the current roller machining equipment is developed by the 80 s, when science and technology, research and development strength is weak, unable to realize the effective processing of roller, also cannot guarantee the requirements of the drawings. 1.1.2 軸承座 1.1.2 bearing 軸承座是經過4-5次沖壓成形的,由于沖壓工藝定位存在缺陷, Bearing seat is stamping after 4 to 5 times, due to the defect of stamping process orientation, 圖4 軸承座 Figure 4 bearing 往往造成軸承座外邊內面(與管子止口臺階的接觸部份)與軸承座的中心孔軸線不垂直,把這樣的軸承座安設到管子2端的止口內后,兩端軸承座的同心度誤差較大.見圖2 Often cause bearing inside outside (contact with the pipe through the steps of part) is not perpendicular to the center hole of the bearing axis, so the bearing installed to pipe within 2 side seam allowance, at both ends and the concentricity of the bearing error is bigger. As shown in figure 2 1.2 軸 1.2 axis 托輥軸是個簡單的零件,材料一般選用冷拔軸,加工量不大,加工精度中等。但是,由于批量大,通用設備加工效率太低;目前的專用設備落后,需要切斷、平頭打中心孔、車槽、銑扁4道工序,這些設備為常規工藝,沒有實現數控和全自動化,加工效率太低,人工費用高,加工精度主要靠操作人員來實現。大部分企業,各工序之間的轉運靠人工來完成;去除毛刺更是手工完成。 Supporting roller is a simple parts, cold drawing axis is generally selected materials, the processing capacity is not big, the machining accuracy of medium. But, because of the large batch, general equipment machining efficiency is too low; Current special equipment backward, and need to cut off the turning, milling, flat centering, flat 4 process, the equipment for the conventional process, do not implement nc and full automation, machining efficiency is too low, the high cost of artificial, machining accuracy is mainly accomplished by the operator. Most of the enterprise, transfer between each process by artificial to complete; Remove burrs is done by hand. 圖5 軸 Figure 5 axis 1.3 托輥裝配 1.3 roller assembly 目前托輥裝配主要采用專用托輥液壓壓床來完成。存在的問題是: The roller assembly mainly adopts roller hydraulic press. The problem is: 1)1個行程,當設備調整好后,只有單獨1個行程,壓完兩端的軸承后,需要把托輥搬運到第二個壓床,再壓裝密封。造成功效低,用人多,產量低。也有把軸承和密封同時一起壓裝的,這是不合乎工藝要求的,往往產生過壓,把密封和軸承過度接觸,造成無法轉動,不在我們的探討范圍。 1) a trip, after the equipment adjust good, only a trip alone, after pressure at the ends of the bearing, need to turn the roller to the second press, seal installation again. Lead to the low efficiency, more of choose and employ persons, lower productivity. Also have a bearing and seal pressed together at the same time, this is not accord with technical requirements, tend to produce overpressure, the excessive contact seal and bearing, unable to turn, not in the scope of our discussion. 2)調整行程復雜費時。先做大行程粗條,需要松開緊固螺栓,推動機頭,然后再調整油缸細扣螺母,用板尺反復測量等等,費工費時,一般的操作工還難以勝任。 2) adjust stroke complicated time consuming. Do big trip cord, first need to loosen the fastening bolts, push the nose, and then adjust the cylinder retaining nut, repeated measurements, etc., with plate ruler takes work, general operator is difficult to do.
    [來源:原創] [作者:aywl] [日期:17-03-10] [熱度:]
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